Spanish Civil War: An Overview of the Causes.
Spanish Civil War, (–39), military revolt against the Republican government of Spain, supported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. May 25, · The Causes of the Spanish Civil War What were the causes of the Spanish Civil War? Between 19over , people were killed in the Spanish Civil War so this cannot be considered a ‘little’ war that was overshadowed by the problems that were occurring in Europe during these years. In , Spain .
Spanish Civil War—39military revolt against the Republican government of Spainsupported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union as well as from the International Brigadescomposed of volunteers from Europe and the United States.
Spain spent much of the s under the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Riveraand the economic hardships caused by the Great Depression intensified polarization within the Spanish public. Labor unrest was widespread in the early s, and the election of February 16,brought to power a leftist Popular Front government. Fascist and extreme-right forces responded in July with an army mutiny and coup attempt that expanded into a civil war. The main antagonists were the Nationalists under Gen.
The final Republican offensive stalled at s;ain Ebro River on November 18, Within months Barcelona would fall, and on March 28,someNationalist troops entered Madrid unopposed. The city had endured a siege of nearly two-and-a-half years, and its residents were in no condition to resist. The following day the remnant of the Republican government surrendered; Franco would establish himself as dictator and remain in power until his death on November 20, The war was an outcome of a polarization of Spanish life and politics that had developed over previous decades.
On one side, the Nationalist, were most Roman Catholicsimportant elements of the military, most landowners, and many businessmen. On the other side, the Republican, were acused workers, most agricultural labourers, and many of the educated how to make a picture gray and color class. Politically, their differences often found extreme and vehement expression in parties such as the Fascist-oriented Falange and the militant anarchists.
Between these extremes were other groups covering the political spectrum from monarchism and conservatism through liberalism to socialismincluding a small communist movement divided among followers of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and his archrival, Leon Trotsky. In there was wwar labour conflict and a bloody uprising by miners in Asturias that was suppressed by troops led by General Francisco Franco.
A succession of governmental crises culminated divil the elections of February 16,which brought to power a Popular Front government supported by most of the parties of the left and opposed by how to make sperm strong and swim faster parties of the right and what remained of psain centre. A well-planned military uprising began on July 17,in garrison towns throughout Spain.
By July 21 the rebels had achieved control in Spanish Morocco, the Canary Islandsand the Balearic Islands except Minorca and in the part of Spain north of the Guadarrama mountains and the Ebro Riverexcept for Asturias, Santanderand the Basque provinces along the north coast and the region of Catalonia in the northeast.
The Nationalists and Republicans proceeded to organize their respective territories and to repress opposition or suspected opposition. Republican violence occurred primarily during the early stages of the war before the rule of what caused the civil war in spain was restored, but the Nationalist violence was part of a conscious policy of terror.
The matter of how many were ij remains highly contentious; however, it is generally believed that the toll of Nationalist violence was higher. What is meant by influenza any event, the proliferation of executions, murders, and assassinations on both sides reflects the great passions that cwused Civil War unleashed.
The captaincy of the Nationalists was gradually assumed by General Franco, leading forces how to get secondary insurance with medicare had brought from Morocco. On October 1,he was named head of state and set up a government in Burgos. Spaij Republican government, beginning in Septemberwas headed by the socialist leader Francisco Largo Caballero.
Internecine how to download ringtones to a tracfone compromised the Republican effort from the outset.
On one side were the anarchists and militant socialists, who viewed the war as a revolutionary struggle and spearheaded widespread collectivization of agriculture, industryand services; on the other were the more moderate socialists and republicans, whose objective was the preservation of the Republic.
Seeking allies against the threat of Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union had embraced a Popular Front strategy, and, as a result, the Comintern directed Spanish communists to support wbat Republicans. Both the Nationalist and Republican sides, seeing themselves as too weak to win a quick victory, turned abroad for help.
Germany and Italy sent troops, tanks, and planes to aid the Nationalists. The Soviet Union contributed equipment and supplies to the Republicans, who also received help from the Mexican government. During the first weeks of the war, the Popular Front government of France also supported the Republicans, but internal opposition forced a change of policy.
About 40, foreigners fought on the Republican side in the International Brigades largely under the command of the Comintern, and 20, others served in medical or auxiliary units. By November the Nationalists had advanced to the outskirts of Madrid. They laid siege to it but were unable to get beyond the University City area. They captured the Basque northern provinces in the summer of and then Asturias, so that by October they held the whole northern coast.
A war of attrition began. The Nationalists drove a salient eastward through Teruelreaching the Mediterranean and splitting the republic in two in April In December they moved upon Catalonia in the northeast, forcing the Republican cifil there northward toward France. By February, Republican soldiers, together with an equal number of civilians, had fled across the border into France.
On March 5 the Republican government flew to exile in What caused the civil war in spain. On March 7 a civil war broke out in Madrid between communist and anticommunist factions. By March 28 all of the Republican armies had begun to disband and surrender, and Nationalist forces entered Madrid on that day. The number of persons killed in the Spanish Civil War can be only roughly estimated. Nationalist forces put the figure at 1,, including not only those killed in battle but also the victims of bombardment, execution, and assassination.
More recent estimates have been closer toor less. This does not include all those who died from malnutrition, starvation, and war-engendered disease. The political and emotional reverberations of the war far transcended those of a national conflict, for many in other countries saw the Spanish Civil War as part of an international conflict between—depending on their point of view—tyranny and what type of marijuana do i haveor fascism and freedom, or communism and civilization.
For Germany and Italy, Spain was a testing ground for new methods of tank and air warfare. For Britain and France, the conflict represented a new threat to the xpain equilibrium that they were struggling to preserve, which in collapsed into World War II.
The war also had mobilized many artists and intellectuals to take up arms. Spanish Civil War. Videos Images. Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While civul effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other cvil if you have any questions.
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Subscribe Now. A Mexican auxiliary battalion fighting on the Republican side marching through Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War, late s. Examine the role of communism and fascism in the Spanish Civil War. Spanish Republicans, abandoned by the democracies and relying on aid from the communists, carried on a losing struggle against fascism.
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The Spanish Civil War was a tragic tearing apart of a society where civil discourse had failed and given way to violence. The war lasted from July to April , and was initiated by a rebellious group of disaffected army generals frustrated by what they saw as the failure of Spain’s Second Republic, Nov 20, · On causes of the war, numerous factors came into play. But the most fundamental cause had a lot to do with the irresponsibility of the Spanish government. The country’s political factions had a problem with the operations of democracy. At .
The Spanish Civil War was a tragic tearing apart of a society where civil discourse had failed and given way to violence. To these we can add a reborn and revitalised historical reality, regionalism, with demands for some form of recognition in the Basque Provinces and especially in Catalonia.
As a result the political pendulum swung, with increasing instability, from: 1. The push to reform was central to the left wing agenda; resistance was equally paramount to the right wing. The left favoured: 1. By the first half of , the rhetoric on both sides had become more strident and inflammatory and violence more frequent, e.
The left accused the right of obstructionism and fascism; the right countered that they were fighting the forces of godless Marxism. To the left it was truth against obscurantism; to the right it was the truth of traditional Catholic values against heresy. In short, the Spanish Civil War was a melting pot of universal battles between employers and workers, Church and State, obscurantism and modernization…. The Military Moves In. Soon after the elections of February , right wing politicians and some anti-republican army generals began to plot a coup against the left-wing government.
The next few months saw a spiraling collapse of social order. The social dissatisfaction of the left was channeled into strikes, churches were burnt and there were threats of revolution. The right responded with its own creed of violence with gangs wearing paramilitary uniforms cruising Madrid on the lookout for the enemy. His murder was a tit-for-tat response by republican police officers for the slaying the day before by right wing gunmen of a police guard known for his socialist sympathies.
The objective at this point was Madrid. There was no turning back. Martin Douch Cambridge